Revista The European Journal of Psychology Applied to Legal Context

The European Journal of Psychology Applied to Legal Context

The European Journal of Psychology Applied to Legal Context

The European Journal of Psychology Applied to Legal Context publica artículos empíricos y revisiones meta-analíticas que abordan temáticas relacionadas con la psicología y la ley (por ejemplo, procesos de decisión judicial, testigos). La revista está dirigida a investigadores, académicos y profesionales de la Psicología, Derecho, Trabajo Social, Ciencias Forenses, Educadores y, en general, a aquellas personas relacionadas con las Ciencias Sociales y la Ley.


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ABSTRACT We systematically linked cross-cultural literature to the Central Eight risk factors as an example of risk assessment procedures. We expected offenders with a migration background (MB) from Turkey or Arab countries to score higher on criminal history, criminal attitudes, antisocial companions, and education and employment problems in comparison to German offenders without an MB. In contrast, for offenders with an MB from Turkey or Arab countries, a reduced risk for unsatisfactory relationships with their parents, alcohol, and leisure-related factors was assumed. The Central Eight risk factors were applied retrospectively for male offenders serving a sentence length of more than 12 months. German offenders without an MB (n = 214) were compared to offenders with a Turkish (n = 135) or Arab (n = 112) MB concerning risk profiles and predictive validity. Risk profiles of offenders with an MB deviated (d = 0.25-0.56) from risk profiles of German offenders without an MB. For offenders without an MB criminal history, antisocial personality, criminal attitudes, antisocial companions, and alcohol/drug problems significantly predicted (AUC = .56-.73) different recidivism events. Similar results were found for offenders with a Turkish MB (AUC = .60-.70) except for antisocial companions (AUC = .50). Results for offenders with an Arab MB were inconclusive; only alcohol/drug problems consistently showed good predictive values (AUC = .66-.68). Findings demonstrate that a culture-sensitive approach in risk assessment is inevitable and recommendations for culture-sensitive research, risk assessment, and offender treatment are discussed.RESUMEN Se ha relacionado sistemáticamente la literatura multicultural con los ocho factores centrales de riesgo, como ejemplo de procesos de evaluación de riesgo. Se esperaba que los delincuentes con origen migratorio (OM) en Turquía o en países árabes obtuviesen una puntuación más alta en historial y actitud delictivos, relaciones interpersonales antisociales y problemas de educación y empleo, en comparación con los delincuentes alemanes sin origen migratorio (OM). En contraste, se asumía que los delincuentes con origen migratorio en Turquía y países árabes tenian menor riesgo de relaciones insatisfactorias con sus padres, alcohol y factores relacionados con el ocio. Se utilizaron retrospectivamente los ocho factores centrales de riesgo con delincuentes masculinos condenados a más de 12 meses. Se compararon delincuentes alemanes sin origen migratorio (n = 214) y delincuentes con origen migratorio en Turquía (n = 135) o en países árabes (n = 112) con respecto a perfiles de riesgo y validez predictiva. Los perfiles de riesgo de los delincuentes con OM se [...]
jue, Dic 13, 2018, Continue reading at the source
ABSTRACT The most alarming type of intimate partner violence is homicide. Violence risk assessment of intimate partner violent offenders is a common topic in police and prison contexts with the aim of preventing recidivism and fatal results. The purpose of this study was to analyze whether men who kill their intimate partner (intimate partner homicide - IPH) present different risk factors from those who kill women outside of a relationship (non-intimate partner homicide - nonIPH). The crime characteristics of 30 attempted or completed IPHs that were sentenced in Catalonia (Spain) between 2004 and 2009 are described. Moreover, the risk factors of 21 completed IPHs and 20 non-IPHs were compared using the RisCanvi, an actuarial risk assessment tool used in the Catalan prison context to manage inmates. Results show differences between the two types of offenders in the criminal role and recklessness, more prevalent among non-IPHs, which is consistent with research indicating that IPH offenders are similar to other homicide offenders. The difficulties faced seeking to assess and manage the risk of IPH are discussed.RESUMEN La forma más alarmante de violencia de pareja es el homicidio. La evaluación del riesgo en agresores de pareja es algo habitual en contextos policiales y penitenciarios con el objetivo de prevenir la reincidencia y los desenlaces mortales. El objetivo del estudio fue analizar si los hombres que matan a su pareja (homicidio de pareja - HP) presentan factores de riesgo diferentes a los de aquellos que matan a una mujer con la que no mantienen relación de pareja (no homicidio de pareja - no-HP). Se describen las características delictivas de 30 homicidios de pareja consumados o intentados que han recibido sentencia en Cataluña (España) entre 2004 y 2009. Además, se compararon los factores de riesgo en los 21 HP consumados y una muestra de 20 no-HP utilizando el RisCanvi, un instrumento actuarial utilizado en las prisiones de Cataluña en la gestión de los internos. Los resultados solo mostraron diferencias en el rol delictivo y en temeridad, más prevalentes en los no-HP, en consonancia con la investigación que señala que los HP son similares a otros homicidas. Se discute la implicación de estos resultados en la valoración y gestión del riesgo en estos casos de violencia de pareja. [...]
jue, Dic 13, 2018, Continue reading at the source
ABSTRACT It is estimated that one fourth of workplace violent incidents occur in the health sector. The aims of the present investigation are: a) to identify sociodemographic and work variables related to exposure to user violence in primary care professionals and b) to analyze the impact of exposure to user violence on professionals' psychological well-being, job satisfaction, and empathy. An empirical study with quantitative, descriptive, and transversal methodology was carried out with a sample of 574 professionals from 39 primary-care centers. The study revealed that variables of gender, professional tenure, continued training, and professional status are significantly associated with exposure to user violence. Likewise, the results show that depending on professional status exposure to user violence, job satisfaction and professionals' empathy have an impact on primary health-care workers' General Health Questionnaire (GHQ) scores. In conclusion, exposure to non-physical user violence in primary-care professionals is associated with some sociodemographic and work characteristics.RESUMEN Se estima que una cuarta parte de los incidentes violentos laborales se producen en el ámbito sanitario. Los objetivos de la presente investigación son: a) identificar las variables sociodemográficas y laborales relacionadas con la exposición a la violencia de los usuarios en profesionales de atención primaria y b) analizar el impacto sobre el bienestar psicológico de los profesionales de la exposición a la violencia de los usuarios, la satisfacción laboral y la empatía. Se llevó a cabo un estudio empírico con metodología cuantitativa, descriptivo y transversal, con una muestra de 574 profesionales de 39 centros de atención primaria. Se observa que las variables de género, antigüedad en la profesión, formación continuada y categoría profesional se encuentran asociadas significativamente a la exposición a la violencia de los usuarios. Del mismo modo, se identifica que la exposición a las conductas violentas de los usuarios, la satisfacción laboral y la empatía de los profesionales influyen, dependiendo de la categoría profesional, en las puntuaciones de GHQ total de los trabajadores de atención primaria. En conclusión, la exposición a la violencia no física de los usuarios en los profesionales de atención primaria se asocia con ciertas características sociodemográficas y laborales. [...]
jue, Dic 13, 2018, Continue reading at the source
ABSTRACT We analyzed 12 studies from North America, South America, Europe, and Oceania (New Zealand) on the association between fear of crime and subjective well-being. These studies gather data from 39 countries and 407,474 subjects. Heterogeneity was found between the studies. The random effect model showed an average effect of = -.15 (ρ = -.21). Two of the studies estimated fear of crime with a single generic question and five studies assessed subjective well-being through one item of satisfaction with life. Meta-regression showed that the effect was superior in younger samples, with affective measurement of well-being in comparison with cognitive ones, of mono-item (versus multi-items) and in the countries of Latin America, suggesting that in contexts of greater frequency and seriousness of the crime the fear of crime negatively affects subjective well-being. The diffuse or concrete nature of the measure of fear did not show a significant moderator effect. Limitations of the study and proposals for future research are discussed.RESUMEN Se analizaron 12 estudios de Norteamérica, Latinoamérica, Europa y Oceanía (Nueva Zelanda) con respecto a la asociación entre el miedo al delito y el bienestar subjetivo. Los estudios reúnen información de 39 países y 407,474 sujetos. Se encontró heterogeneidad entre los estudios. El modelo de efectos aleatorios mostró un efecto promedio de = -.15 (ρ = -.21). Dos estudios evaluaron el miedo al delito con una sola pregunta genérica, mientras que cinco estudios midieron el bienestar subjetivo con un ítem de satisfacción con la vida. La meta-regresión mostró que el efecto fue superior en muestras más jóvenes, con medidas afectivas del bienestar subjetivo en comparación con medidas cognitivas de un solo ítem (versus medidas poli-item), y en países de Latinoamérica, sugiriendo que en contextos de mayor frecuencia y severidad del crimen el miedo al delito afecta negativamente al bienestar subjetivo. La naturaleza difusa o concreta de la medida de miedo al delito no mostró un efecto moderador. Se debaten las limitaciones del estudio y las propuestas para futuras investigaciones. [...]
jue, Dic 13, 2018, Continue reading at the source
ABSTRACT The objective of this article is to analyze the predictive capacity of some individual, family, and community variables concerning the likelihood that a teenager will engage in aggressive behavior toward others using a mobile phone or the Internet, occasionally or intensely, controlling for the effect of potential confounding variables. To that end, the Cyber-Aggression Questionnaire for Adolescents (CYBA) as well as previously validated scales for the evaluation of the potential indicators analyzed were applied to 3,059 adolescents 12 to 18 years of age (M = 14.01, SD = 1.39). The aforementioned scales include sociodemographic variables (age and sex) and variables referring to the use of the Internet (social networks, instant messaging programs, and the Internet for non-school tasks), parental control (behavioral control, rules for the use of the Internet, Internet use monitoring, and affection and communication), personality (impulsivity and empathy), antisocial behavior (frequency of aggression toward others at school, antisocial behavior outside the school, and antisocial friendships), and frequency of cyber-victimization. Multivariate regression analyses highlight the predictive capacity of impulsivity, aggression at school, and cyber-victimization as risk factors of cyber-aggression. They also suggest the existence of indirect or even spurious relationships between some of the variables analyzed and cyber-aggression. We discuss the practical implications of these results.RESUMEN The objective of this article is to analyze the predictive capacity of some individual, family, and community variables concerning the likelihood that a teenager will engage in aggressive behavior toward others using a mobile phone or the Internet, occasionally or intensely, controlling for the effect of potential confounding variables. To that end, the Cyber-Aggression Questionnaire for Adolescents (CYBA) as well as previously validated scales for the evaluation of the potential indicators analyzed were applied to 3,059 adolescents 12 to 18 years of age (M = 14.01, SD = 1.39). The aforementioned scales include sociodemographic variables (age and sex) and variables referring to the use of the Internet (social networks, instant messaging programs, and the Internet for non-school tasks), parental control (behavioral control, rules for the use of the Internet, Internet use monitoring, and affection and communication), personality (impulsivity and empathy), antisocial behavior (frequency of aggression toward others at school, antisocial behavior outside the school, and antisocial friendships), and frequency of cyber-victimization. Multivariate regression analyses highlight the predictive capacity of impulsivity, aggression at school, and cyber-victimization as risk factors of cyber-aggression. They also suggest the existence of indirect or even spurious relationships between [...]
jue, Dic 13, 2018, Continue reading at the source

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