Revista The European Journal of Psychology Applied to Legal Context

The European Journal of Psychology Applied to Legal Context

The European Journal of Psychology Applied to Legal Context

The European Journal of Psychology Applied to Legal Context publica artículos empíricos y revisiones meta-analíticas que abordan temáticas relacionadas con la psicología y la ley (por ejemplo, procesos de decisión judicial, testigos). La revista está dirigida a investigadores, académicos y profesionales de la Psicología, Derecho, Trabajo Social, Ciencias Forenses, Educadores y, en general, a aquellas personas relacionadas con las Ciencias Sociales y la Ley.


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ABSTRACT Background: Cyberbullying is a highly prevalent problem in our society with important implications for adolescent psychological wellbeing. The objective of the study was to examine the network structure of the Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Scale in a sample of youths, and find out the relationships between different types of cybervictimization and the presence of negative emotional states. Method: This was a descriptive cross-sectional study. The sample was made up of 2,171 high school students with a mean age of 13.84 (with 50.53% males and 49.47% females). The Cybervictimization Questionnaire (CYVIC) and the Spanish version of the Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Scale (DASS-21) were administered. Results: Positive correlations were found between all the dimensions of the DASS-21 and the types of cybervictimization. The network structure showed that the different nodes of three emotional states were positively related to each other (although some relationships were stronger than others). Furthermore, girls had significantly higher means in depression, anxiety, and stress. In analyzing the network, the strongest associations in both sexes were found to be between anxiety and written-verbal cybervictimization and exclusion. Conclusions: Negative emotional states and types of cybervictimization were related in a complex network where efforts to approach reduction of emotional symptoms associated with cybervictimization could produce lasting benefits for the emotional wellbeing of youths.RESUMEN Antecedentes: El ciberbullying es una problemática con una alta prevalencia en nuestra sociedad y que tiene importantes implicaciones para el bienestar psicológico de los adolescentes. El objetivo del trabajo fue examinar la estructura de red de la Escala de Depresión, Ansiedad y Estrés en una muestra de jóvenes, así como comprobar las relaciones que se establecen entre diferentes tipos de cibervictimización y la presencia de estados emocionales negativos. Método: Se realizó un estudio descriptivo transversal. La muestra estuvo formada por 2,171 estudiantes de Educación Secundaria, con una media de edad de 13.84 años (donde el 50.53% fueron hombres y el 49.47% mujeres). Se aplicó el Cuestionario de Cibervictimización (CYVIC) y la versión española de Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS-21). Resultados: Se encontraron correlaciones positivas entre todas las dimensiones del DASS-21 y los tipos de cibervictimización. Atendiendo a la estructura de redes, se halló que los diferentes nodos de los tres estados emocionales se relacionaban positivamente entre sí (aunque algunas relaciones eran más fuertes que otras). Por otro lado, en relación al sexo, las mujeres mostraron medias significativamente más [...]
Mar, Oct 03, 2023, Continue reading at the source
ABSTRACT Aim: We examined the ability to detect lying about opinions with the Devil's Advocate Approach and Verifiability Approach. Method: Interviewees were first asked an opinion eliciting question to argue in favour of their alleged personal view. This was followed by a devil's advocate question to argue against their alleged personal view. Since reasons that support rather than oppose an opinion are more readily available in people's minds, we expected truth tellers' responses to the opinion eliciting question to include more information and to sound more plausible, immediate, direct, and clear than their responses to the devil's advocate question. In lie tellers these patterns were expected to be less pronounced. Interviewees were also asked to report sources that could be checked to verify their opinion. We expected truth tellers to report more verifiable sources than lie tellers. A total of 150 participants expressed their true or false opinions about a societal issue. Results: Supporting the hypothesis, the differences in plausibility, immediacy, directness, and clarity were more pronounced in truth tellers than in lie tellers (answers to eliciting opinion question sounded more plausible, immediate, direct, and clear than answers to the devil's advocate question). Verifiable sources yielded no effect. Conclusions: The Devil's Advocate Approach is a useful tool to detect lies about opinions.RESUMEN Objetivos: El artículo analiza la capacidad para detectar el engaño en declaraciones de testigos basadas en opiniones con el enfoque del “abogado del diablo” y el de la verificabilidad. Método: A un grupo de entrevistados se le pidió que argumentaran a favor de su opinión personal. A un segundo grupo se le requirió que, haciendo de abogado del diablo, argumentaran en contra de su punto de vista personal. Dado que los argumentos favorables a la opinión personal son mentalmente más accesibles que los contrarios, esperábamos que las respuestas honestas de los testigos incluyeran más argumentos y resultaran más plausibles, inmediatas, directas y claras que las respuestas haciendo de abogado del diablo. Por su parte, en la condición de respuestas falsas esperábamos que estos patrones fueran menos pronunciados. Además, se solicitó a los entrevistados que informaran de los medios en los que podría verificarse su opinión. Esperábamos que los testigos de la condición de verdad aportaran más fuentes verificables que los de la condición de mentira. Participaron en el estudio un total de 150 sujetos que manifestaron su opinión verdadera o falsa sobre un tema de relevancia social. Resultados: [...]
Mar, Oct 03, 2023, Continue reading at the source
ABSTRACT Background: Child-to-parent violence is a family issue that needs a systemic and integral approach for its evaluation. The main objective of this longitudinal study was to assess the moderating effects of adolescents' borderline personality and psychopathic traits (grandiose-manipulative, callous-unemotional, and impulsive-irresponsible dimensions) in the predictive association between inadequate parental strategies (psychological aggression, corporal punishment, and ignoring misbehavior) and child-to-parent violence. Sex differences were analyzed. Method: The community sample comprised 671 adolescents aged from 12 to 17 years old (Mage = 13.39, SD = 1.15; 50.8% girls, 47.7% boys, and 1.5% non-binary), assessed twice, six months apart from each other. Results: Results showed slightly different patterns of violence towards fathers and mothers – ignoring misbehavior predicted aggression toward mothers, while psychological aggression predicted aggression toward fathers. Moderation analyses showed that the predictive association from ignoring misbehavior to both child-to-father violence (CFV) and child-to-mother violence (CMV) was only significant for adolescents who were high in the psychopathic trait of callous-unemotional, and the predictive association from psychological aggression to CFV was only significant in those adolescents who scored low in the borderline personality trait. Some sex specificities emerged. Conclusions: These findings support the relevance of working on parents' discipline strategies and add the need to work on adolescents' emotional regulation to prevent or deal with child-to-parent violence.RESUMEN Antecedentes: La violencia filioparental (VFP) es una problemática familiar cuya evaluación requiere una perspectiva sistémica e integral. El objetivo principal de este estudio longitudinal fue evaluar los efectos moderadores de los rasgos límite y psicopáticos (dimensiones grandiosa-manipulativa, fría-insensible e impulsiva-irresponsable) en adolescentes en la relación predictiva entre estrategias inadecuadas parentales (agresión psicológica, castigo físico e ignorar el mal comportamiento) y la VFP. Se analizaron diferencias por sexo de los adolescentes. Método: La muestra comunitaria estuvo compuesta por 671 adolescentes, de edades comprendidas entre 12 y 17 años (Medad = 13.39, SD = 1.15; 50.8% chicas, 47.7% chicos y 1.5% no binarios), evaluadas en dos momentos con seis meses de diferencia. Resultados: Los resultados mostraron patrones ligeramente diferentes en la violencia hacia padres y madres: ignorar el mal comportamiento predijo la violencia hacia los madres, mientras que la agresión psicológica predijo la la violencia hacia los padres. Los análisis de moderación mostraron que la asociación predictiva entre ignorar el mal comportamiento y la violencia hacia ambos progenitores era significativa solo en adolescentes con rasgos elevados de frialdad emocional y [...]
Mar, Oct 03, 2023, Continue reading at the source
ABSTRACT Background: Legal cases and research have shown that due to suggestive therapeutic interventions, people can start to remember abuse that they never experienced. Some of these people eventually retract their claims of abuse. This study examined the memory reports of self-defined retractors of abuse and the prevalence of nonbelieved memories. Method: In this study, a retrospective survey method was used to investigate 56 individuals who had retracted their claims of abuse. We examined details, plausibility, beliefs, and recollections of the abuse before and after retraction, as well as the reasons for withdrawing their belief and the outcomes of both recovered and retracted memories. Results: Twenty-four participants took significantly longer to retract the memories than to initially recover them. The belief in the occurrence of the abusive event and personal plausibility scores were significantly lower after the retraction, whereas the recollection scores were similar before and after the retraction. The main reason for withdrawing the belief in the abuse-related memory was the emergence of external evidence putting doubt on the retractors' claims. After the withdrawal of the memories, some retractors (n = 17, 70.83%, 95% CI [52.6%, 0.89%]) believed that they gained more benefits (e.g., giving them a new chance to re-build their lives and to establish new relationships with others). Conclusion: While the reliability of retractors' reports is unclear, these findings support related work on retractor memory reports and highlight the presence of nonbelieved memories within retractors' memory reports.RESUMEN Antecedentes: Los casos judiciales y la investigación han demostrado que debido a intervenciones terapéuticas sugestivas, los pacientes pueden recordar abuso que no han sufrido. Algunos de estos se retractan de las denuncias de abuso. En esta investigación se analizan las memorias de testigos que se retractaron de las denuncias de abusos y la prevalencia de memorias implantadas. Método: Se investigó mediante un método de encuesta retrospectiva a 56 pacientes que se retractaron de la denuncia de abuso. Se analizaron los detalles, la verosimilitud, creencias y recuerdos del abuso antes y después de retractarse, así como los motivos por los que desistieron de la creencia en el abuso y los resultados de las memorias recuperadas y retractadas. Resultados: 24 participantes tardaron significativamente más en asumir la memoria de retractación de la denuncia que en la recuperación inicial de la memoria de abuso. La creencia sobre la realidad del evento de abuso y la plausibilidad de este fueron significativamente menores después de [...]
Mar, Oct 03, 2023, Continue reading at the source
ABSTRACT Background/Aim: Young people in care may show significant mental health difficulties because of previous adverse experiences, such as maltreatment or violence. However, no meta-analyses have been conducted on this topic. We aim to identify the role of previous maltreatment in current symptoms of children and adolescents in out-of-home care. Method: A search in Academic Search Complete, PsycArticles, PsycInfo, Psychology and Behavioral Sciences Collection, ERIC, Medline, Web of Science and Scopus databases was conducted. Studies were included if they were empirical and quantitative, involved school-aged children and adolescents, assessed maltreatment before placement in care and current internalizing and externalizing symptoms. Multiple effect sizes were extracted from each primary study, and a three-level meta-analysis for each type of maltreatment associated with internalizing and externalizing symptoms was conducted. Results: The search yielded 122 effects sizes from 28 studies. Results indicated significant overall effects of general maltreatment (r = .260), abuse (emotional/physical) (r = .135) and sexual abuse (r = .247) on internalizing symptoms. In relation to externalizing symptoms, overall effects of abuse (emotional/physical) (r = .097) and sexual abuse (r = .187) were identified. The overall effect sizes of neglect were neither significant for internalizing or externalizing symptoms. A set of moderators was tested, and significant effects were found for the type of maltreatment measure on internalizing symptoms and for gender on externalizing symptoms. Conclusions: This study provides new insights beyond previous systematic reviews, as we were able to disentangle the associations between maltreatment and internalizing and externalizing symptoms in out-of-home care.RESUMEN Antecedentes/Objetivos: Los niños y adolescentes de protección presentan problemas significativos en la salud mental debidos a experiencias previas adversas como el maltrato o la violencia. A pesar de ello no se han realizado meta-análisis sobre esto. Se diseñó una revisión meta-analítica con el objetivo de conocer el papel que desempeña el maltrato sufrido en los síntomas que experimentan los niños y adolescentes en acogida fuera del hogar. Método: Se llevó a cabo una búsqueda bibliográfica en las bases de datos Academic Search Complete, PsycArticles, PsycInfo, Psychology y Behavioral Sciences Collection, ERIC, Medline, Web of Science y Scopus. Se incluyeron los estudios que eran empíricos y cuantitativos, concernían a niños y adolescentes en edad escolar, evaluaban el maltrato antes de que fuesen dados en acogida y también los síntomas actuales internalizantes y externalizantes. De cada estudio primario se extrajeron varios tamaños del efecto y se ejecutaron meta-análisis de tres niveles para [...]
Mar, Oct 03, 2023, Continue reading at the source
ABSTRACT Objective: Even though previous research has identified the negative impact of the attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in intimate partner violence (IPV) perpetration, less is known regarding the moderator factors that explain this association. In this study, we first aimed to assess whether there would be differences in terms of specific neuropsychological variables (e.g., IQ, working memory, executive functioning, and emotion decoding) between different groups of IPV perpetrators, affected or not by ADHD, and also compared with non-violent men (without ADHD). Second, we evaluated differences in dropout and recidivism among the subgroups of IPV perpetrators. Third, we assessed whether ADHD interacts with neuropsychological functioning to explain treatment compliance (dropout) and official recidivism among IPV perpetrators. Method: We administered a set of neuropsychological tests and self-reports to a group of IPV perpetrators with ADHD (n = 161), without ADHD (n = 163), and non-violent men (n = 103). Data on IPV perpetrators' treatment compliance and official recidivism were collected after treatment. Results: Our results indicated that all the groups of IPV perpetrators presented worse performance in all cognitive domains than controls. Furthermore, ADHD IPV perpetrators also showed worse performance in all cognitive domains than IPV perpetrators without ADHD, except for emotion decoding abilities. Most importantly, the combined subtype of ADHD IPV perpetrators presented the highest rate of dropout and official recidivism. Lastly, ADHD diagnosis and neuropsychological impairments separately offered a considerable explanation of treatment compliance and recidivism but their combination did not increase the amount of explained variance. Conclusions: Our study highlights the need to implement good screening processes for correctly diagnosing IPV perpetrators and, consequently, designing more effective intervention programs.RESUMEN Objetivo: Existen múltiples investigaciones que han identificado el impacto negativo del trastorno por déficit de atención e hiperactividad (TDAH) en la perpetración de la violencia contra la mujer en las relaciones de pareja. Sin embargo, existen menos evidencias sobre los factores moderadores que explicarían la asociación entre dichas variables. Por lo tanto, el primer objetivo de este estudio ha sido valorar si existen diferencias en variables neuropsicológicas específicas (p. ej., cociente intelectual, memoria de trabajo, funcionamiento ejecutivo y decodificación de las emociones) entre diferentes grupos de hombres que ejercen violencia contra la mujer en las relaciones de pareja (o maltratadores), afectados o no por el TDAH, y también en comparación con hombres no violentos (sin TDAH). En segundo lugar, evaluamos las diferencias en el [...]
Mar, Oct 03, 2023, Continue reading at the source

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