Revista The European Journal of Psychology Applied to Legal Context

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The European Journal of Psychology Applied to Legal Context

The European Journal of Psychology Applied to Legal Context

The European Journal of Psychology Applied to Legal Context publica artículos empíricos y revisiones meta-analíticas que abordan temáticas relacionadas con la psicología y la ley (por ejemplo, procesos de decisión judicial, testigos). La revista está dirigida a investigadores, académicos y profesionales de la Psicología, Derecho, Trabajo Social, Ciencias Forenses, Educadores y, en general, a aquellas personas relacionadas con las Ciencias Sociales y la Ley.


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ABSTRACT Aim: We examined the ability to detect lying about opinions with the Devil's Advocate Approach and Verifiability Approach. Method: Interviewees were first asked an opinion eliciting question to argue in favour of their alleged personal view. This was followed by a devil's advocate question to argue against their alleged personal view. Since reasons that support rather than oppose an opinion are more readily available in people's minds, we expected truth tellers' responses to the opinion eliciting question to include more information and to sound more plausible, immediate, direct, and clear than their responses to the devil's advocate question. In lie tellers these patterns were expected to be less pronounced. Interviewees were also asked to report sources that could be checked to verify their opinion. We expected truth tellers to report more verifiable sources than lie tellers. A total of 150 participants expressed their true or false opinions about a societal issue. Results: Supporting the hypothesis, the differences in plausibility, immediacy, directness, and clarity were more pronounced in truth tellers than in lie tellers (answers to eliciting opinion question sounded more plausible, immediate, direct, and clear than answers to the devil's advocate question). Verifiable sources yielded no effect. Conclusions: The Devil's Advocate Approach is a useful tool to detect lies about opinions.RESUMEN Objetivos: El artículo analiza la capacidad para detectar el engaño en declaraciones de testigos basadas en opiniones con el enfoque del “abogado del diablo” y el de la verificabilidad. Método: A un grupo de entrevistados se le pidió que argumentaran a favor de su opinión personal. A un segundo grupo se le requirió que, haciendo de abogado del diablo, argumentaran en contra de su punto de vista personal. Dado que los argumentos favorables a la opinión personal son mentalmente más accesibles que los contrarios, esperábamos que las respuestas honestas de los testigos incluyeran más argumentos y resultaran más plausibles, inmediatas, directas y claras que las respuestas haciendo de abogado del diablo. Por su parte, en la condición de respuestas falsas esperábamos que estos patrones fueran menos pronunciados. Además, se solicitó a los entrevistados que informaran de los medios en los que podría verificarse su opinión. Esperábamos que los testigos de la condición de verdad aportaran más fuentes verificables que los de la condición de mentira. Participaron en el estudio un total de 150 sujetos que manifestaron su opinión verdadera o falsa sobre [...]
Mar, Abr 23, 2024, Continue reading at the source
ABSTRACT Background: Legal cases and research have shown that due to suggestive therapeutic interventions, people can start to remember abuse that they never experienced. Some of these people eventually retract their claims of abuse. This study examined the memory reports of self-defined retractors of abuse and the prevalence of nonbelieved memories. Method: In this study, a retrospective survey method was used to investigate 56 individuals who had retracted their claims of abuse. We examined details, plausibility, beliefs, and recollections of the abuse before and after retraction, as well as the reasons for withdrawing their belief and the outcomes of both recovered and retracted memories. Results: Twenty-four participants took significantly longer to retract the memories than to initially recover them. The belief in the occurrence of the abusive event and personal plausibility scores were significantly lower after the retraction, whereas the recollection scores were similar before and after the retraction. The main reason for withdrawing the belief in the abuse-related memory was the emergence of external evidence putting doubt on the retractors' claims. After the withdrawal of the memories, some retractors (n = 17, 70.83%, 95% CI [52.6%, 0.89%]) believed that they gained more benefits (e.g., giving them a new chance to re-build their lives and to establish new relationships with others). Conclusion: While the reliability of retractors' reports is unclear, these findings support related work on retractor memory reports and highlight the presence of nonbelieved memories within retractors' memory reports.RESUMEN Antecedentes: Los casos judiciales y la investigación han demostrado que debido a intervenciones terapéuticas sugestivas, los pacientes pueden recordar abuso que no han sufrido. Algunos de estos se retractan de las denuncias de abuso. En esta investigación se analizan las memorias de testigos que se retractaron de las denuncias de abusos y la prevalencia de memorias implantadas. Método: Se investigó mediante un método de encuesta retrospectiva a 56 pacientes que se retractaron de la denuncia de abuso. Se analizaron los detalles, la verosimilitud, creencias y recuerdos del abuso antes y después de retractarse, así como los motivos por los que desistieron de la creencia en el abuso y los resultados de las memorias recuperadas y retractadas. Resultados: 24 participantes tardaron significativamente más en asumir la memoria de retractación de la denuncia que en la recuperación inicial de la memoria de abuso. La creencia sobre la realidad del evento de abuso y la plausibilidad [...]
Mar, Abr 23, 2024, Continue reading at the source
ABSTRACT Background/Aim: Young people in care may show significant mental health difficulties because of previous adverse experiences, such as maltreatment or violence. However, no meta-analyses have been conducted on this topic. We aim to identify the role of previous maltreatment in current symptoms of children and adolescents in out-of-home care. Method: A search in Academic Search Complete, PsycArticles, PsycInfo, Psychology and Behavioral Sciences Collection, ERIC, Medline, Web of Science and Scopus databases was conducted. Studies were included if they were empirical and quantitative, involved school-aged children and adolescents, assessed maltreatment before placement in care and current internalizing and externalizing symptoms. Multiple effect sizes were extracted from each primary study, and a three-level meta-analysis for each type of maltreatment associated with internalizing and externalizing symptoms was conducted. Results: The search yielded 122 effects sizes from 28 studies. Results indicated significant overall effects of general maltreatment (r = .260), abuse (emotional/physical) (r = .135) and sexual abuse (r = .247) on internalizing symptoms. In relation to externalizing symptoms, overall effects of abuse (emotional/physical) (r = .097) and sexual abuse (r = .187) were identified. The overall effect sizes of neglect were neither significant for internalizing or externalizing symptoms. A set of moderators was tested, and significant effects were found for the type of maltreatment measure on internalizing symptoms and for gender on externalizing symptoms. Conclusions: This study provides new insights beyond previous systematic reviews, as we were able to disentangle the associations between maltreatment and internalizing and externalizing symptoms in out-of-home care.RESUMEN Antecedentes/Objetivos: Los niños y adolescentes de protección presentan problemas significativos en la salud mental debidos a experiencias previas adversas como el maltrato o la violencia. A pesar de ello no se han realizado meta-análisis sobre esto. Se diseñó una revisión meta-analítica con el objetivo de conocer el papel que desempeña el maltrato sufrido en los síntomas que experimentan los niños y adolescentes en acogida fuera del hogar. Método: Se llevó a cabo una búsqueda bibliográfica en las bases de datos Academic Search Complete, PsycArticles, PsycInfo, Psychology y Behavioral Sciences Collection, ERIC, Medline, Web of Science y Scopus. Se incluyeron los estudios que eran empíricos y cuantitativos, concernían a niños y adolescentes en edad escolar, evaluaban el maltrato antes de que fuesen dados en acogida y también los síntomas actuales internalizantes y externalizantes. De cada estudio primario se extrajeron varios tamaños del efecto y se [...]
Mar, Abr 23, 2024, Continue reading at the source
ABSTRACT Background/Objectives: A fatal diagnostic error of suicidal intention, i.e., an error implying death or serious injuries (i.e., incapacitating, chronic injury) to the patient, may have civil liability (punishable error) for the clinician. The Scale for Suicidal Ideation (SSI) is the reference psychometric instrument used to measure suicidal intention. A meta-analytical review was designed with the aim of estimating the true reliability of the SSI in general and in different settings (moderators) with the aim of correcting unreliability raw scores. Method: A total of 90 primary studies reporting SSI's reliability (internal consistency) was found in the literature, yielding a total of 92 effect sizes. Bare-bones meta-analysis of correlation coefficients correcting effect by sampling error were run. Results: The results showed an overall mean true internal consistency of .8904, 95% CI [.8878, .8930], meaning that 42.6% of the population standard deviation is error and 18.11% of an individual's measure is error. Additional estimations (moderators) of SSI's reliability for gender (men: .8873, women: .8808) adaptation version (English: .9212, Korean: .9052, Chinese: .8402, Italian: .9163, Persian: .8612), and population (subclinical: .8769, general: .9230, mental illness: .9040) were obtained. All mean true estimations were under the desirable standard for applied settings where critical decisions are made, .95. Furthermore, for populations with risk of suicide, such as prison inmates and militaries, mean true reliability could not be computed as k was insufficient. Conclusion: Implications of true reliabilities obtained for the estimation of individuals' true scores and population standard deviations are discussed. Examples of computation of true scores to minimize fatal diagnosis errors were performed for both known reliability and unknown reliability settings (e.g., risk populations).RESUMEN Antecedentes/Objetivo: Un error diagnóstico mortal de intención suicida, es decir, un error que implique la muerte o lesiones graves (es decir, incapacitantes, crónicas) para el paciente, puede tener responsabilidad civil (error punible) para el clínico. La Escala de Ideación Suicida (SSI) es el instrumento psicométrico de referencia utilizado para medir la intención suicida. En este estudio se diseñó una revisión metaanalítica para medir la fiabilidad real de la SSI en general y en diferentes ámbitos (moderadores), con el fin de corregir las puntuaciones brutas por la falta de fiabilidad de la medida. Método: En la búsqueda de estudios se encontró un total de 90 estudios primarios que trataban de la fiabilidad (consistencia interna) del SSI, lo que arrojó un total de 92 tamaños del [...]
Mar, Abr 23, 2024, Continue reading at the source
ABSTRACT Background/aim: Child sexual abuse (CSA) is a pervasive issue that affects children and adolescents worldwide, and Spain is no exception. Despite its high impact, there is a lack of comprehensive data on the prevalence of CSA in Spain. This study aims to update the current state of the prevalence of CSA, providing a comprehensive picture of the prevalence of sexual abuse from data using varying defining criteria. Method: A cross-sectional design was conducted, including a total of 1,323 participants, aged between 18 and 70 years (M = 28.40, SD = 10.31) responded to a measure of exposure to child sexual abuse. Results: The results exhibited that the prevalence of CSA was 9.2% for male and 22.1% for female participants, significantly higher for them. In terms of prevalence rate, females reported more frequently than males having suffered a more severe form of sexual abuse when they were 13 to 18 years old, with a large magnitude of the effect. Another notable finding was that the occurrence of global CSA with and without intercourse was significant, not a trivial effect. Conclusions: Consequently, there is a need for increased awareness, education, and resources to prevent and address CSA. The results of this study highlight the need for continued research to better understand the extent of CSA and to develop evidence-based interventions to protect children and adolescents from CSA victimization.RESUMEN Antecedentes/objetivo: El abuso sexual infantil (ASI) es un problema generalizado que afecta a niños y adolescentes en todo el mundo, y España no es una excepción. A pesar de su gran repercusión, faltan datos completos sobre la prevalencia del ASI en España. El estudio pretende actualizar el estado actual de la prevalencia del ASI, proporcionando una imagen completa de la prevalencia del abuso sexual a partir de datos que utilizan diferentes criterios de definición. Método: Se realizó un diseño transversal, incluyendo un total de 1,323 participantes, en edades comprendidas entre 18 y 70 años (M = 28.40, DT = 10.31) respondieron a una medida de exposición a abuso sexual infantil. Resultados: Los resultados mostraron que la prevalencia de ASI fue del 9.2% para los hombres y del 22.4% para las mujeres, significativamente mayor para ellas. En cuanto a la tasa de prevalencia, las mujeres declararon con mayor frecuencia que los hombres haber sufrido una forma más grave de abuso sexual cuando tenían entre 13 y 18 [...]
Mar, Abr 23, 2024, Continue reading at the source

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